Tuesday, August 30, 2016

team work

Ingat Akkbar Danial?
Anak kelahiran Kelantan yang dulu pernah merempat di Jepun dan kini menjadi Naib Presiden Honda Malaysia. Careta pernah menulis cerita bagaimana Akkbar sebagai budak kampung bekerja keras untuk menjadi antara tonggak utama syarikat kenderaan bukan nasional nombor satu di Malaysia (baca laporan kami di pautan ini)
Careta bersama dengan Akkbar sekali lagi di Kota Kinabalu untuk pandu uji media bagi model Civic generasi kesepuluh dan seperti biasa, baharulah kami mendapat peluang untuk duduk berbual. Jika di Kuala Lumpur, kedua pihak sering sibuk dengan urusan.
Kali ini, Careta meminta Akkbar untuk memberi tips dan nasihat bagaimana cara untuk memenangi hati majikan yang berasal dari Jepun.
Akkbar mula bekerja dengan syarikat Jepun sejak 18 tahun lalu dan fasih dengan bahasa dan budaya dari negara matahari terbit itu. Siapa lagi yang lebih baik selain beliau untuk memberi sedikit tips dan panduan kepada anak-anak muda yang bekerja dengan syarikat dari Jepun.
  • Bangsa Jepun sangat pentingkan ketepatan masa. Jangan sekali-kali terlambat semasa temuduga pekerjaan dengan syarikat Jepun. Dan bila sudah bekerja dengan syarikat Jepun, jangan lambat jika mahu naik pangkat segera.
  • Jangan lupa berpakaian kemas. Tidak semestinya berpakaian jenama mahal, atau memakai fesyen terkini tetapi pakaian yang kemas dan bersih. Jika berjambang, pastikan teratur kemas. Jika anda punk atau rock atau ska atau gothic, buang semua itu di luar bilik temuduga. First impression lasts – nasihat Akkbar.
  • Gunakan nama keluarga bila kita memanggil mereka. Contohnya, jika namanya Hiroshi Tanaka, panggil beliau dengan nama keluarganya, dan tambah -san di belakang. Contohnya, Tanaka-san.
    Anda hanya boleh menggunakan nama Hiroshi atau nama pertama bila tuan punya nama sudah melihat anda sebagai rakan rapat atau jika di dalam pejabat, anda sudah sama pangkat dengannya.
  • Tepati janji. Jika kita berkata tugasan itu boleh siap dalam masa tiga jam, pastikan ia siap. Tiada alasan patut dibagi.
WhatsApp Image 2016-08-24 at 6.10.31 PM
  • Bangsa Jepun tidak suka mendabik dada bercerita tentang kejayaan peribadi. Jika anda bekerja dengan syarikat Jepun, pastikan sentiasa bercakap kejayaan itu datang dari seluruh ahli pasukan anda.
  • Bangsa Jepun sangat menghargai team work atau kerjasama antara pekerja. Tidak ada sifat menuding jari kepada individu sekiranya tragedi berlaku.
  • Prinsip Ho-Ren-So ialah satu lagi cara pemikiran atau thought process-flow yang diikuit oleh bangsa Jepun. Horenso bermaksud bayam, tetapi juga adalah singkat kepada tiga perkataan Jepun.
    • Hokoku – Laporan akan isu tersebut
    • Renraku – Hubungi mereka yang berkenaan
    • Sodan – Berbincang akan masalah tersebut dan jalan penyelesaian
    • Pastinya cara begini ialah sesuatu yang universal dan logik tetapi yang membezakan bangsa Jepun dengan orang lain, mereka benar-benar mengamalkan falsafah ini.
  • Jangan marah atau rasa tertekan jika ketua Jepun anda memberikan anda banyak tugasan. Pepatah Jepun mengatakan, kerja hanya akan diberikan kepada mereka yang bekerja. Ini bermakna sekiranya beliau memberikan anda banyak tugasan, anda sudah mendapat kepercayaan darinya. JANGAN bazirkan kepercayaan beliau itu! Buktikan diri anda sebagus apa yang dia harapkan.
  • Teori orang Jepun suka bekerja lebih masa adalah tidak tepat. Ramai yang akan pastikan kerja sudah selesai pada masa dan balik tepat pada masa. Cuma satu amalan Jepun ialah mereka suka mengetahui proses-proses di luar tugasan kita. Ini bermakna anda perlu ambil tahu kerja-kerja lain samada di bawah peringkat anda, atau melepasi peringkat anda. Dan sekiranya salah seorang dari rakan anda masih belum menyiapkan kerjanya, bantu. Ingat, Jepun pentingkan kerjasama dalam kumpulan!
  • Jika anda diminta untuk membuat penyampaian laporan, hindari dari menggunakan terlalu banyak perkataan. Di dalam presentation slides atau slide laporan anda, gunakan gambarajah dan pergi terus kepada fakta dan nombor. Dalam bahasa pasar, bangsa Jepun tidak suka anda “menggoreng”.
  • Akkbar turut berkongsi satu lagi rahsia pengurusan yang sering digunakan oleh Honda – teori tiga G.
    • Genba – secara lisan, ia bermaksud “di tempat kejadian”
    • Genbutsu – perkara sebenar, benda sebenar
    • Genjitsu – situasi sebenar
    • Menurut Akkbar, konsep 3 G ini bermaksud anda patut pergi ke lokasi masalah itu dan lihat keadaan sekeliling. Kemudian dapatkan semua fakta-fakta yang ada di situ dari yang memang mengalami masalah itu sendiri dan fahamkan situasi masalah tersebut. Kemudian, anda akan dapat menyelesaikan masalah itu dengan lebih cepat, ringkas dan tepat.
Terima kasih Akkbar dan semoga informasi dan nasihat beliau ini berguna untuk anak-anak muda yang baharu memulakan karier mereka bersama syarikat Jepun.

Wednesday, August 17, 2016

30 TANDA-TANDA HATI KOTOR*

*30 TANDA-TANDA HATI KOTOR*

1. _Gelisah walaupun tiada masalah._
2. _Selalu berbangga dengan diri sendiri._
3. _Angkuh serta sombong dengan pandang hina terhadap orang lain._
4. _Tidak amanah dan mungkir janji._
5. _Selalu mengintai keaiban orang dan sebarkannya._
6. _Suka mengumpat dan membuka aib orang lain._
7. _Gembira melihat orang lain susah dan rendah daripada dirinya._
8. _Lidah yang tajam atau tidak menjaga hati orang._
9. _Suka menyakiti hati orang dengan sindiran._
10. _Berlagak alim semata-mata untuk dipuji orang_
11. _Menyampaikan ilmu dengan riak._
12. _Menganggap diri lebih hebat daripada orang lain._
13. _Berpakaian elok untuk dipuji Serta menunjuk-nunjuk._
14. _Derhaka kepada kedua-dua ibu bapa._
15. _Talam dua muka (manis di depan tapi jahat di belakang)_
16. _Suka menjatuhkan dan memijak orang dengan kuasa yang ada_
17. _Solat yang tidak khusyuk._
18. _Kagum terhadap diri sendiri. Merasa diri bagus serta cerdik._
19. _Selalu mengeluh serta tidak redho dgn suratan takdir._
20. _Cinta kepada duniawi dan materialistik._
21. _Mudah bersangka buruk terhadap orang._
22. _Membesar besarkan hal yang remeh temeh._
23. _Suka bergosip dan menabur fitnah._
24. _Menggunakan agama dan berdengki atas perkara duniawi._
25. _Cinta dunia melebihi cintanya pada akhirat. Membesarkan dunia serta berangan-angan untuk dunia._
26. _Pendendam._
27. _Penting diri dalam semua hal._
28. _Berpura-pura dan suka membodek._
29. _Tamak haloba serta bakhil serta sangat berkira dengan orang lain._
30. _Nafsu serta kehendak syahwat yang tidak terbendung._
*Kesemua sifat diatas adalah sifat Mazmumah (terkeji). Mari bermuhasabah diri samada hati masih terhijab kepada Allah dengan sifat-sifat buruk diatas atau tidak, jika masih maka hendaklah membersihkannya dengan mengenal Allah, banyak mengingati Allah, berdamping dengan guru pembimbing dan sentiasa bersangka baik kepada Allah dan makhlukNya.*
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Monday, August 08, 2016

21's Framework for 21st Century Learning

P21's Framework for 21st Century Learning was developed with input from teachers, education experts, and business leaders to define and illustrate the skills and knowledge students need to succeed in work, life and citizenship, as well as the support systems necessary for 21st century learning outcomes. It has been used by thousands of educators and hundreds of schools in the U.S. and abroad to put 21st century skills at the center of learning.
The P21 Framework represents both 21st century student outcomes (as represented by the arches of the rainbow) and support systems (as represented by the pools at the bottom). 

While the graphic represents each element distinctly for descriptive purposes, P21 views all the components as fully interconnected in the process of 21st century teaching and learning.
The elements described below are the critical systems necessary to ensure 21st century readiness for every student. 21st century standards, assessments, curriculum, instruction, professional development and learning environments must be aligned to produce 21st century outcomes for today’s students.

21st Century Student Outcomes

The elements described in this section as “21st century student outcomes” (represented by the rainbow) are the skills, knowledge and expertise students should master to succeed in work and life in the 21st century.
1. Content Knowledge and 21st Century Themes
Mastery of fundamental subjects and 21st century themes is essential for students in the 21st century. Disciplines include:
English, reading or language arts
World languages
Arts
Mathematics
Economics
Science
Geography
History
Government and Civics
In addition to these subjects, we believe schools must move beyond a focus on basic competency to promoting understanding of academic content at much higher levels by weaving 21st century interdisciplinary themes into curriculum:
2. Learning and Innovation Skills: Learning and innovation skills increasingly are being recognized as the skills that separate students who are prepared for increasingly complex life and work environments in the 21st century, and those who are not. A focus on creativity, critical thinking, communication and collaboration is essential to prepare students for the future.
3. Information, Media and Technology Skills: Today we live in a technology and media-suffused environment with: 1) access to an abundance of information, 2) rapid changes in technology tools, and 3) the ability to collaborate and make individual contributions on an unprecedented scale. To be effective in the 21st century, citizens and workers must be able to create, evaluate, and effectively utilize information, media, and technology.
4. Life and Career SkillsToday's students need to develop thinking skills, content knowledge, and social and emotional competencies to navigate complex life and work environments. P21's essential Life and Career Skills include::
  • Flexibility & Adaptability
  • Initiative & Self Direction
  • Social & Cross-Cultural Skills
  • Productivity & Accountability
  • Leadership & Responsibility

21st Century Support Systems

The elements described below are the critical systems necessary to ensure student mastery of 21st century skills. 21st century standards, assessments, curriculum, instruction, professional development and learning environments must be aligned to produce a support system that produces 21st century outcomes for today’s students.

1. 21st Century Standards
  • Focus on 21st century skills, content knowledge and expertise.
  • Build understanding across and among academic subjects as well as 21st century interdisciplinary themes
  • Emphasize deep understanding rather than shallow knowledge
  • Engage students with the real world data, tools, and experts they will encounter in college, on the job, and in life--students learn best when actively engaged in solving meaningful problems
  • Allow for multiple measures of mastery
2. Assessment of 21st Century Skills
  • Support a balance of assessments, including high-quality standardized testing along with effective classroom formative and summative assessments
  • Emphasize useful feedback on student performance that is embedded into everyday learning
  • Require a balance of technology-enhanced, formative and summative assessments that measure student mastery of 21st century skills
  • Enable development of portfolios of student work that demonstrate mastery of 21st century skills to educators and prospective employers
  • Enable a balanced portfolio of measures to assess the educational system's effectiveness at reaching high levels of student competency in 21st century skills
Additional resources:
3. 21st Century Curriculum and Instruction
  • Teaches 21st century skills discretely in the context of key subjects and 21st century interdisciplinary themes
  • Focuses on providing opportunities for applying 21st century skills across content areas and for a competency-based approach to learning
  • Enables innovative learning methods that integrate the use of supportive technologies, inquiry- and problem-based approaches and higher order thinking skills
  • Encourages the integration of community resources beyond school walls
4. 21st Century Professional Development
  • Highlights ways teachers can seize opportunities for integrating 21st century skills, tools and teaching strategies into their classroom practice — and help them identify what activities they can replace/de-emphasize
  • Balances direct instruction with project-oriented teaching methods
  • Illustrates how a deeper understanding of subject matter can actually enhance problem-solving, critical thinking, and other 21st century skills
  • Enables 21st century professional learning communities for teachers that model the kinds of classroom learning that best promotes 21st century skills for students
  • Cultivates teachers' ability to identify students' particular learning styles, intelligences, strengths and weaknesses
  • Helps teachers develop their abilities to use various strategies (such as formative assessments) to reach diverse students and create environments that support differentiated teaching and learning
  • Supports the continuous evaluation of students' 21st century skills development
  • Encourages knowledge sharing among communities of practitioners, using face-to-face, virtual and blended communications
  • Uses a scaleable and sustainable model of professional development
5. 21st Century Learning Environments
  • Create learning practices, human support and physical environments that will support the teaching and learning of 21st century skill outcomes
  • Support professional learning communities that enable educators to collaborate, share best practices and integrate 21st century skills into classroom practice
  • Enable students to learn in relevant, real world 21st century contexts (e.g., through project-based or other applied work)
  • Allow equitable access to quality learning tools, technologies and resources
  • Provide 21st century architectural and interior designs for group, team and individual learning.
  • Support expanded community and international involvement in learning, both face-to-face and online

Friday, August 05, 2016

21 st Education

21ST CENTURY SKILLS

LAST UPDATED: 
The term 21st century skills refers to a broad set of knowledge, skills, work habits, and character traits that are believed—by educators, school reformers, college professors, employers, and others—to be critically important to success in today’s world, particularly in collegiate programs and contemporary careers and workplaces. Generally speaking, 21st century skills can be applied in all academic subject areas, and in all educational, career, and civic settings throughout a student’s life.
It should be noted that the “21st century skills” concept encompasses a wide-ranging and amorphous body of knowledge and skills that is not easy to define and that has not been officially codified or categorized. While the term is widely used in education, it is not always defined consistently, which can lead to confusion and divergent interpretations. In addition, a number of related terms—including applied skillscross-curricular skillscross-disciplinary skillsinterdisciplinary skills,transferable skillstransversal skillsnoncognitive skills, and soft skills, among others—are also widely used in reference to the general forms of knowledge and skill commonly associated with 21st century skills. While these different terms may not be strictly synonymous, and they may have divergent or specialized meanings in certain technical contexts, these diverse sets of skills are being addressed in this one entry for the purposes of practicality and usefulness.
While the specific skills deemed to be “21st century skills” may be defined, categorized, and determined differently from person to person, place to place, or school to school, the term does reflect a general—if somewhat loose and shifting—consensus. The following list provides a brief illustrative overview of the knowledge, skills, work habits, and character traits commonly associated with 21st century skills:
  • Critical thinking, problem solving, reasoning, analysis, interpretation, synthesizing information
  • Research skills and practices, interrogative questioning
  • Creativity, artistry, curiosity, imagination, innovation, personal expression
  • Perseverance, self-direction, planning, self-discipline, adaptability, initiative
  • Oral and written communication, public speaking and presenting, listening
  • Leadership, teamwork, collaboration, cooperation, facility in using virtual workspaces
  • Information and communication technology (ITC) literacy, media and internet literacy, data interpretation and analysis, computer programming
  • Civic, ethical, and social-justice literacy
  • Economic and financial literacy, entrepreneurialism
  • Global awareness, multicultural literacy, humanitarianism
  • Scientific literacy and reasoning, the scientific method
  • Environmental and conservation literacy, ecosystems understanding
  • Health and wellness literacy, including nutrition, diet, exercise, and public health and safety
While many individuals and organizations have proposed definitions of 21st century skills, and most states have adopted learning standards that include or address cross-disciplinary skills, the following are three popular models that can serve to illustrate the concept and its applications in education:
For related discussions, see content knowledge and learning standards.

Reform

Generally speaking, the 21st century skills concept is motivated by the belief that teaching students the most relevant, useful, in-demand, and universally applicable skills should be prioritized in today’s schools, and by the related belief that many schools may not sufficiently prioritize such skills or effectively teach them to students. The basic idea is that students, who will come of age in the 21st century, need to be taught different skills than those learned by students in the 20th century, and that the skills they learn should reflect the specific demands that will placed upon them in a complex, competitive, knowledge-based, information-age, technology-driven economy and society.
While 21st century skills are relevant to all areas of schooling and academic study, and the skills may be taught in a wide variety of in-school and outside-of-school settings, there are a few primary ways in which 21st century skills intersect with efforts to improve schools:
  • Teachers may be more intentional about teaching cross-disciplinary skills in subject-area courses. For example, in a science course students might be required to learn research methods that can also be applied in other disciplines; articulate technical scientific concepts in verbal, written, and graphic forms; present lab results to a panel of working scientists; or use sophisticated technologies, software programs, and multimedia applications as an extension of an assigned project.
  • States, accrediting organizations, and schools may require 21st century skills to be taught and assessed in courses. For example, states can adopt learning standards that explicitly describe cross-disciplinary skills, and assessmentsmay be designed or modified to evaluate whether students have acquired and mastered certain skills.
  • Schools and teachers may use educational approaches that inherently encourage or facilitate the acquisition of cross-disciplinary skills. For example, educational strategies such as authentic learningdemonstrations of learning, or project-based learning tend to be cross-disciplinary in nature, and students—in the process of completing a research project, for example—may have to use a variety of applied skills, multiple technologies, and new ways of analyzing and processing information, while also taking initiative, thinking creatively, planning out the process, and working collaboratively in teams with other students.
  • Schools may allow students to pursue alternative learning pathways in which students earn academic credit and satisfy graduation requirements by completing an internship, apprenticeship, or volunteer experience, for example. In this case, students might acquire a variety of practical, job-related skills and work habits, while also completing academic coursework and meeting the same learning standards required of students in more traditional academic courses.

Debate

While there is broad agreement that today’s students need different skills than were perhaps taught to previous generations, and that cross-disciplinary skills such as writing, critical thinking, self-initiative, group collaboration, and technological literacy are essential to success in higher education, modern workplaces, and adult life, there is still a great deal of debate about 21st century skills—from what skills are most important to how such skills should be taught to their appropriate role in public education. Given that there is no clear consensus on what skills specifically constitute “21st century skills,” the concept tends to be interpreted and applied in different ways from state to state or school to school, which can lead to ambiguity, confusion, and inconsistency.
Calls for placing a greater emphasis on cross-disciplinary skills in public education are, generally speaking, a response to the perception that most public schools pay insufficient attention to the postsecondary preparation and success of students. In other words, the concept has become a touchstone in a larger debate about what public schools should be teaching and what the purpose of public education should be. For example: Is the purpose of public education to get students to pass a test and earn a high school diploma? Or is the purpose to prepare students for success in higher education and modern careers? The push to prioritize 21st century skills is typically motivated by the belief that all students should be equipped with the knowledge, skills, work habits, and character traits they will need to pursue continued education and challenging careers after graduation, and that a failure to adequately prepare students effectively denies them opportunities, with potentially significant consequences for our economy, democracy, and society.
A related debate centers on the distinction between “knowledge” and “skills,” and how schools and teachers may interpret—or misinterpret—the concepts. Some educators argue that it’s not possible to teach cross-disciplinary skills separately from knowledge and conceptual understanding—for example, students can’t learn to write well if they don’t have ideas, facts, principles, and philosophies to write about. The basic idea is that “21st century skills” is an artificial concept that can’t be separated out from subject-area knowledge and instruction. Other educators may argue that cross-disciplinary skills have historically been ignored or under-prioritized in schools, and the push to give more emphasis and attention to these skills is simply a commonsense response to a changing world.
The following list provides a few additional examples of representative arguments that may be made in support of teaching 21st century skills:
  • In today’s world, information and knowledge are increasing at such an astronomical rate that no one can learn everything about every subject, what may appear true today could be proven to be false tomorrow, and the jobs that students will get after they graduate may not yet exist. For this reason, students need to be taught how to process, parse, and use information, and they need adaptable skills they can apply in all areas of life—just teaching them ideas and facts, without teaching them how to use them in real-life settings, is no longer enough.
  • Schools need to adapt and develop new ways of teaching and learning that reflect a changing world. The purpose of school should be to prepare students for success after graduation, and therefore schools need to prioritize the knowledge and skills that will be in the greatest demand, such as those skills deemed to be most important by college professors and employers. Only teaching students to perform well in school or on a test is no longer sufficient.
  • Given the widespread availability of information today, students no longer need teachers to lecture to them on the causes of the Civil War, for example, because that information is readily available—and often in more engaging formats that a typical classroom lecture. For this reason, educators should use in-school time to teach students how to find, interpret, and use information, rather than using most or all of the time to present information.
The following list provides a few examples of representative arguments that may be made against the concept of 21st century skills:
  • Public schools and teachers have always taught, and will continue to teach, cross-disciplinary skills—they just never gave it a label. The debate over “content vs. skills” is not new—educators have been talking about and wrestling with these issues for a century—which makes the term “21st century skills” somewhat misleading and inaccurate.
  • Focusing too much on cross-disciplinary skills could water-down academic courses, and students may not get “the basics.” The more time teachers spend on skill-related instruction, the less time they will have for content-based instruction. And if schools privilege cross-disciplinary skills over content knowledge, students may be denied opportunities because they are insufficiently knowledgeable. Students need a broad knowledge base, which they won’t receive if teachers focus too much on skill-related instruction or “learning how to learn.”
  • Cross-disciplinary skills are extremely difficult to assess reliably and consistently. There are no formal tests for 21st century skills, so the public won’t know how well schools are doing in teaching these skills.
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